1. definition
  2. examples and/or illustrations
  3. other useful sources
  4. bibliography
  5. case law


  1. A temporary or permanent endorsement of the bona fides of travellers issued to show that they have met the requirements for admission to a State where they are not a national

International Organization for Migration, http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/about-migration/managing-migration/passport-visa-systems/lang/en (accessed on April 16, 2012).

  1. An endorsement made by an authorized representative of one country upon a passport issued by another, permitting the passport holder entry into or transit through the country making the endorsement.

Dictionary.com, http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/visa?s=t (accessed on April 12, 2012).

  1. An official authorization appended to a passport, permitting entry into and travel within a particular country or region.
  2. An endorsement made in a passport that allows the bearer to enter the country issuing it

The Free Dictionary, http://www.thefreedictionary.com/visa (accessed on April 12, 2012).

French translation: Visa

 1. Seal, signature or initials affixed to a document, either to validate or to certify the payment of a fee;
2. Authentic character, worth residence permit stamped on a passport by diplomatic (embassy, ​​consulate or representation) of countries in which the applicant desires to proceed;
3. Form of control prior commitment or payment of public spending.

Larousse.com www.larousse.com/fr/dictionnaires/francais/visa

1. Formula or seal accompanied by a signature on a deed that affixes to make regular or valid
2. Specialty: Formula required in addition to the passport for entry into some countries, or under certain conditions in a country.

Le Petit Robert. 2012, Le Robert, p. In 2721.

1. Formula or seal accompanied by a signature on a deed that affixes to make regular or valid.
2. Seal, signature or initials affixed to a document either to accept it, is to prove the payment of a fee.
3. Means the document issued by the stamp or visa officer.
4. Formula by which a person or government department (visa customs) means that a document was presented.
5. Formula applied to a document executed by an officer or a public officer, and proving that this piece was approved by a senior official.

Granddictionnaire.com www.granddictionnaire.com/BTML/FRA/r_Motclef/index800_1.asp


Examples and/or Illustrations

He printed the visa in the passport. -Stendhal

Traditionally, the right to enter the territory of a state remains a privilege related to national sovereignty of that State. Prior authorization in the form of visa, must often be obtained.

However, the Schengen Convention and its implementation in 1990 have laid the foundation stone of the future Community policy by introducing visa free movement between a group of European states. For example, the uniform visa for the Schengen Convention is one of the measures which guarantees freedom of movement “internal” in States parties.

United States Visa: www.usa.immigrationvisaforms.com (accessed on April 12, 2012).

Indian Visa: www.in.vfsglobal.ca (accessed on April 12, 2012).

Schengen Visa (for EU): www.tlscontact.com (accessed on April 12, 2012).

Canadian Visa (not the most recent one): www.cbsa-asfc.gc.ca (accessed on April 12, 2012).


Other Useful Sources

“Countries and territories whose citizens require visas for visitors to enter Canada as visitors,” www.cic.gc.ca/francais/visiter/visas.asp. (Accessed March 15, 2012).

Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Visiting Canada, http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/visit/index.asp (accessed on April 12, 2012).

Council of the European Union, Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 of 15 March 2011 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement, available from: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2001:081:0001:0007:EN:PDF (accessed on April 16, 2012).

Council of the European Union, Common Consular Instructions on Visas for the Diplomatic Missions and Consular Posts (2005/C 326/01), available from: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2005:326:0001:0149:EN:PDF (accessed on April 16, 2012).

European Council on Refugees and Exiles, Visas, http://www.ecre.org/component/content/article/37-access-to-europe/9-visas.html (accessed on April 16, 2012).

International Organization for Migration, Passport & Visa Systems, http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/about-migration/managing-migration/passport-visa-systems/lang/en (accessed on April 16, 2012).

International Organization for Migration, Visa Systems, http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/about-migration/managing-migration/passport-visa-systems/visa-systems (accessed on April 16, 2012).

Europa.eu, Visa requirements for non-EU nationals, http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/justice_freedom_security/free_movement_of_persons_asylum_immigration/jl0031_en.htm (accessed on May 1st, 2012).



Carlier, Jean-Yves, The Status of Persons in the European Union, Brussels, Larcier, 2007, p. 143 et seq.

COURNIL, Christine, The internal status of foreign and supranational, France, L’Harmattan, 2005, p. 54 et seq.

Kernerman, Gerald and RESNICK, Philip. Insiders & Ousiders, Canada, UBC Press, 2004.

European Council on Refugees and Exiles, ELENA Survey of Provisions on Travel Documents and Visas for Refugees in the European Union, 1 October 2000, available at: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3decd05d4.html (accessed 16 April 2012).

Global Commission on International Migration (GCIM), The Development-Visa Scheme: A Proposal for a Market-Based Migration Control Policy, June 2005, Global Migration Perspectives, No. 36, available from: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/policy_and_research/gcim/gmp/gmp36.pdf (accessed on April 16, 2012).

Global Commission on International Migration (GCIM), Unequal Access to Foreign Spaces: How States Use Visa Restrictions to Regulate Mobility in a Globalised World, September 2005, Global Migration Perspectives, No. 43, available from: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/policy_and_research/gcim/gmp/gmp43.pdf (accessed on April 16, 2012).

Sirtori, Sonia and Patricia Coelho, “Defending Refugees’ Access to Protection in Europe”, European Council on Refugees and Exiles, December 2007, Section 3, available from: http://www.ecre.org/component/content/article/57-policy-papers/95-defending-refugees-access-to-protection-in-europe.html (accessed on April 16, 2012).

United States Government Accountability Office, Border security State Department rollout of biometric visas on schedule, but guidance is lagging: report to the Chairman, Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives, September 2004, Diane Publishing.


Case Law


  • Mehmet Soysal and Ibrahim Savatli v Bundesrepublik Deutschland, C-228/06, European Union: European Court of Justice, 19 February 2009.
  • Minh Khoa Vo, C‑83/12 PPU, European Union: European Court of Justice, 10 April 2012.