1. definition
  2. examples and/or illustrations
  3. other useful sources
  4. bibliography


The process of to put or keep putting (someone) in a powerless or unimportant position within a society or group (Merriam-Webster,2014).

An alternative definition to marginalization defined by Jenson (2000) is “Marginals: people the system of labor cannot or will not use, as a result they are excluded from one of society’s major integrating activities, thereby missing out on one of the basic factors leading to full inclusion

Marginalization is a kind of exclusion or isolation of the young people from the main political, social, economic mainstreams (Hailu,2012).


Examples and/or Illustrations

“marginalization is perhaps the most dangerous form of oppression. A

whole category of people is expelled from useful participation in social life and thus potentially subjected to severe material deprivation.” Not being included is costly indeed. (Jenson,2000)

When limiting ones rights, they often oppressed, deemed as having no value or freedom of speech in society because of their lower position status wise

Marginalization is a phenomenon of material resources, but it also includes, for both the EFA Forum and for Iris Marion Young, lack of capacity to participate politically and culturally, in markets and in other institutions. Lines of social difference and discrimination often overlay, indeed sometimes promote, patterns of marginalization. (Jenson,2000).

Discrimination is often the root cause for marginalization because of the lack of knowledge one may know politically and culturally, their voices are automatically not listened too in society

Visible minorities, many of whom are new immigrants, point to racism and discrimination as factors leading to their marginalization in Canadian society. (Jenson,2000).

Racism and discrimination are what create maringalization. If discrimination did not exist against certain groups, certain groups would not be doing certain kinds of labor in todays day and age especially when having credentials from a home country

Another example of marginalization involving move than just individuals’ income is provided by the increasing concentration of poverty in urban areas (Jenson,2000).

Ones social status economically can play a big part in being maringalized, especially if they are racialized at the same time

Other Useful Sources

Buckner, J. D., DeWall, C., Schmidt, N. B., & Maner, J. K. (2010). A Tale of Two Threats: Social Anxiety and Attention to Social Threat as a Function of Social Exclusion and Non-Exclusion Threats. Cognitive Therapy & Research34(5), 449-455. doi:10.1007/s10608-009-9254-x

Grimaldi, E. (2012). Neoliberalism and the marginalisation of social justice: the making of an education policy to combat social exclusion. International Journal Of Inclusive Education16(11), 1131-1154. doi:10.1080/13603116.2010.548105

DANGSCHAT, J. S. (2009). Space Matters — Marginalization and Its Places. International Journal Of Urban & Regional Research,33(3), 835-840. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2427.2009.00924.x

Ward, N. (2009). Social Exclusion, Social Identity and Social Work: Analysing Social Exclusion from a Material Discursive Perspective. Social Work Education28(3), 237-252. doi:10.1080/02615470802659332



AMICELLE, A. (2008). Migrant Remittances Marginalized: An Unintended Consequence of the Fight against Terrorist Financing?.Conference Papers — International Studies Association, 1-18.

Hailu, Desta. (2012). Democracy & the Marginalized Youth: Who are they & Why are they important.  The World Youth Movement for Democracy’s online discussion event panel. Retrived from http://wymdonline.org/Youth%20Discussions/Events/youthmarginalization.html

Jenson, Jane. (2000). Thinking about Marginalization: What, No and Why? Canadian Policy Research Networks Inc. (CPRN).Web Version. Pgs 1-14. Retrieved from http://www.rcrpp.org/documents/ACFi2pioT.PDF

Jones, R. (2009). Agents of exception: border security and the marginalization of Muslims in India. Environment & Planning D: Society & Space27(5), 879-897. doi:10.1068/d10108

Marginalization. (n.d.) In Merriam-Webster online. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/marginalize

Scraton, P. (2004). Streets of Terror: Marginalization, Criminalization, And Authoritarian Renewal. Social Justice31(1/2), 130-158.

Other related terms

Social Exclusion- The act of isolating a group of people or certain individuals from society’s social, cultural, political lifestyles

Social Status- position or rank of one group in society

Homelessness- the unfortunate state or condition of having no home (one is not born this way, situations occur that arise to this position)

Discrimination- the prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, esp. on the grounds of race, age, or sex.

Case Law

Unfortunately because of how broad and abstract the term Marginalization is, it is quite difficult and unrealistic to examine Marginalization that has been implemented or reinforced in Canadian history because of its continuing evolution and constant crime rate of occurrence.